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  • PESAN DAN TANGGAPAN :

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
    Oleh : Nobel
    Selasa, 10 Oktober 2000 (21:35 WIB) dari IP 131.169.98.44

    The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
    has by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences been awarded

    with one half jointly to
    ZHORES I. ALFEROV
    A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St.
    Petersburg, Russia and
    HERBERT KROEMER
    University of California at Santa Barbara,
    California, USA,

    and with the other half to
    JACK S. KILBY
    Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA.

    The researchers|APO| work has laid the
    foundations of modern information
    technology, IT, particularly through their
    invention of rapid transistors, laser diodes,
    and integrated circuits (chips).


    RE:The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
    Oleh : Press release
    Selasa, 10 Oktober 2000 (21:42 WIB) dari IP 131.169.98.44

    obel Prize in Physics 2000
    Available in: ()


    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel
    Prize in Physics for 2000 to scientists and inventors whose work has laid the
    foundation of modern information technology, IT, particularly through their
    invention of rapid transistors, laser diodes, and integrated circuits (chips).

    The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to

    Zhores I. Alferov
    A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and

    Herbert Kroemer
    University of California at Santa Barbara, California, USA,

    "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and
    opto-electronics"

    and one half to

    Jack S. Kilby
    Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas, USA

    "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"


    Modern information technology
    In today|APO|s society increasing amounts of information flow from our
    computers out through the optical fibres of the Internet and through our
    mobile telephones to satellite radio links all over the world. Two simple but
    fundamental requirements are put on a modern information system for it to
    be practically useful. It must be fast, so that large volumes of information
    can be transferred in a short time. The user|APO|s apparatus must be small so that
    there is room for it in offices, homes, briefcases or pockets.

    Through their inventions this year|APO|s Nobel Laureates in physics have laid a
    stable foundation for modern information technology. Zhores I. Alferov
    and Herbert Kroemer have invented and developed fast opto- and
    microelectronic components based on layered semiconductor structures,
    termed semiconductor heterostructures. Fast transistors built using
    heterostructure technology are used in e.g. radio link satellites and the base
    stations of mobile telephones. Laser diodes built with the same technology
    drive the flow of information in the Internet|APO|s fibre-optical cables. They are
    also found in CD players, bar-code readers and laser pointers. With
    heterostructure technology powerful light-emitting diodes are being built
    for use in car brake-lights, traffic lights and other warning lights. Electric
    bulbs may in the future be replaced by light-emitting diodes.

    Jack S. Kilby is being rewarded for his part in the invention and
    development of the integrated circuit, the chip. Through this invention
    microelectronics has grown to become the basis of all modern technology.
    Examples are powerful computers and processors which collect and process
    data and control everything from washing machines and cars to space probes
    and medical diagnostic equipment such as computer tomographs and
    magnetic resonance cameras. The microchip has also led to our environment
    being flooded with small electronic apparatuses, anything from electronic
    watches and TV games to mini-calculators and personal computers.

    ***


    Zhores I. Alferov born 1930 in Vitebsk, White Russia, then the Soviet
    Union. Doctor|APO|s degree in physics and mathematics 1970 at A.F. Ioffe
    Physico-Technical Institute in St. Petersburg (then Leningrad), Russia.
    Director of this Institute since 1987. http://194.85.224.34/pti00002.html

    Herbert Kroemer born 1928 in Germany. Doctor|APO|s degree in physics 1952
    at University of Göttingen. Employed among other places at RCA
    Laboratories, Princeton, NJ, USA 1954-57 and at Varian Associates, Palo
    Alto, CA, USA, 1959-66. Professor of Physics, University of Colorado,
    Boulder, 1968-76 and subsequently University of California at Santa
    Barbara, USA. http://www.ece.ucsb.edu/Faculty/Kroemer/default.html

    Jack S. Kilby born 1923 at Jefferson City, Missouri, USA. American
    citizen. Employed at Texas Instruments since 1958. Professor at Texas
    A&M University 1978-85.
    http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr/jackstclair.shtml

    ***

    The Prize amount is SEK 9 million. Zh.I. Alferov and H. Kroemer are to
    share one half and J.S. Kilby is awarded the other half.
    More information: http://www.nobel.se/announcement/2000
    Press Officer: Eva Krutmeijer, phone |PLS| 46 8 673 95 95, |PLS|46 709 84 66 38,
    evak@kva.se


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